Television personality and former Olympian Caitlyn Jenner catapulted transgender issues into the mainstream. But it’s the new Olympic guidelines that are really impressing the trans community
There’s no denying that Olympic gold-winning decathlete Caitlyn (formerly Bruce) Jenner’s public transition raised the profile of transgender issues worldwide. But it was the January 2016 announcement that Olympic guidelines would be relaxed – meaning trans people will not need to have completed gender reassignment surgery before competing – that signals genuine change for trans athletes.
An openly trans person is yet to compete in the Olympics, but the buzz extends beyond the difference the International Olympic Committee’s (IOC) guideline change makes at global level. That’s because it will have a knock-on effect for domestic sporting bodies. This is likely to mean that openly trans people will be able to take part in sports, the majority of which are genderdivided, both nationally and locally.
Sophie Green, an artist and trans activist, says: “The Olympics guidelines always trickle down, so we expect it will open up a lot of opportunities for people to play sports locally. We hope it will give trans people the confidence to get back to doing things they love.”
Green co-runs a website called Trans Girl Can, inspired by Sport England’s This Girl Can campaign, and is passionate about the importance of sport and fitness. “Sport is such a great thing to do through transition as it’s very empowering and it’s great for mental health, which can be an issue.”
Green, who began transitioning in 2010, is determined to raise awareness of transgender issues. She says: “Growing up I didn’t know what trans meant or that there were other people like me, but now you have different people from across society finding their voice.”
Everyone should be able to do what they love without having to have surgery or special documents
With the charity, All About Trans, which aims to change the representation of trans people in media, Green facilitates workshops for clients such as the cast and crew of Hollyoaks – which welcomed its first transgender actress in November – and journalists and producers at the BBC. “Talking is so important. [Clients] don’t necessarily know how to get things right, so they often have questions about terminology or whether something may or may not be offensive.”
Green says the increase in positive portrayals and reportage in the media has led to a more vocal trans community. “It means that a lot of trans people now have the confidence in themselves to stand up and tell their stories. There’s a wave of people who want to get involved and make positive change.” Green believes the IOC’s decision is part of this momentum. “People in the trans community are getting quite animated about it,” she says. “It’s nice to have these little wins, they keep coming.”
However, there remains a long way to go. In November 2015, a transgender woman was found dead in her cell at an all-male prison after apparently taking her own life. Before her death, she had begged to be moved to a female facility.
Accessing healthcare can also be a struggle for trans people. Dr James Barrett, president of the British Association of Gender Identity Specialists, told the Women and Equalities Committee during a review in December 2015 that: “The casual, sometimes unthinking trans-phobia of primary care, accident and emergency services and inpatient surgical admissions continue[s] to be striking.” The resulting government report – the first to look solely at transgender rights in the UK – also explored mental health and social isolation. In 2014, PACE, a mental health charity for the lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender community, (which has since closed due to a lack of funding) found that 48 per cent of trans people under 26 had attempted suicide, while 59 per cent had considered doing so.
People from across society finding their voices
“The glamorous stories of trans celebrities are in stark contrast to the day-to-day experiences of many trans people”, says Conservative MP and the chair of parliament’s Women and Equalities Committee, Maria Miller. She is calling for a sea-change in how trans people are supported within the NHS.
Progress came in October 2015 when the World Medical Association, which represents more than 10 million physicians worldwide, adopted new guidelines for trans patients, and recognised the key role doctors play in successful transition.
In the US, the picture is equally as patchy for trans athletes as it is for the general trans public. A high-profile battle is currently under way in cycling. Professional cyclocross racer Molly Cameron has long identified as a woman but is usually forced to compete in men’s competitions. She is currently fighting for sporting body USA Cycling to recognise trans people after she was barred from competing at all.
Jessica Gray, a UK cyclist, can empathise. She started cycling three years ago when she began to transition and competing has always been her ultimate goal. “Being unable to compete is really demoralising when you’ve got into a sport. For me, competing makes sport more fun and gives you a goal to work towards, so I was grinning from ear to ear when I heard the IOC’s news. I can’t wait to race.”
She believes positive role models in sport will inspire other trans people to get involved. “I think just seeing trans people openly taking part in sport, which is such a normal thing to do, will help the trans movement,” Gray says. “Everyone should be able to do what they love without having to have surgery or special documents. It’s a small step, but it’s a start.”
Natalie Washington is a 32-year-old IT service manager from Hampshire
She began transitioning two years ago. At the time she assumed she would have to give up football, but thanks to Rushmoor Community FC and some very welcoming team mates, she joined the women’s team last summer. She hopes to start playing competitively soon.
I started playing football as a teenager and in a way, at first, I was making myself like it. When you’re that age and you’re trying to be accepted, you want to have things in common with your peers. I guess it’s also part of the trans experience to try and fit in.
But later on when I was a young adult, my friends and I started up a men’s Sunday league team. It was competitive but fun. It was how my friends and I bonded. Football became really important to me.
I was nearly 30 when I made the decision to start transitioning. At the time, the FA rules said that to play football as a trans woman, you had to be at least two years post-gender reassignment surgery. I knew that would be some time. The waiting lists for the surgery meant it wouldn’t be until my late 30s that I could play football again and I thought it would be too difficult socially to join a women’s team as a trans woman. I didn’t think people would be accepting.
I just thought football would be one of the things I would have to give up. Most of those who are transitioning seem to have to sacrifice something, and people have to give up a lot more than football – their families, for example. Of course, I could have carried on playing men’s football after transition, but I tried playing men’s Sunday morning football in Aldershot with long hair, shaved legs and painted nails and it was not a comfortable experience.
But in July last year, I decided to contact a local women’s team to ask if it would be OK to join. They didn’t have any problem with it. Going into any new situation, especially as I’ve only been out as a trans woman for just over 18 months, is scary though. I was nervous going to the first training session because I didn’t know how people were going to react. But I don’t mind talking about being transgender and answering questions, so that helped.
I now train with the team once a week on a Tuesday and then games – we’re in Hampshire County Women’s Division One – are usually Sunday afternoons. Social isolation is a problem for many trans people. Before I started playing football again, I would just go to work and go home, so being in the team has really helped in that regard too because we socialise together and I’ve made good friends.
The only sticking point is that I haven’t been able to play any competitive matches. Under the FA’s new rules, trans women can compete as long as the amount of testosterone in their blood is under a certain level. My hormones are now under that level, but I’ve just been told I can only compete if they stay under for a whole year. It’s quite upsetting as I thought I would be able to compete right away. I actually meet the criteria to compete in the Olympics, but not the ones the FA seem to be working to. I hope they change their decision, but for now it looks like I’ll just be watching from the sidelines.
Hopefully the IOC’s decision as well as the mention of sports in the government’s Women and Equalities Committee report will help others like me. If trans people at a more elite level can now participate in sport, then it seems silly that people at a lower level can’t as well.
Photography by Alexander Walker